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The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has published its first-ever comprehensive data protection law. The Personal Data Protection Law (PDPL) aims to protect individuals' personal data privacy and regulate organisations' collection, processing, disclosure, or retention of personal data.
The PDPL provides comprehensive requirements related to processing principles, data subjects' rights, organisations' obligations while processing the personal data of individuals, cross-border data transfers mechanisms, and lays out penalties for organisations in case of non-compliance with the PDPL.
One of the prominent features of the PDPL is that it does not prejudice any provision that grants a right to the data subject or stipulates better protection in any other law or an international convention to which Saudi Arabia is a party.
Furthermore, the Saudi data protection regulatory authority, the SDAIA in collaboration with the National Data Management Office (NDMO) issued a draft version of the Executive Regulations on 10 March, 2022.
The PDPL came into force on 17 March 2023.
So, who needs to comply with this law? What rights do data subjects have? Who enforces this new law? To learn more about these questions plus a lot more to increase your compliance efforts, read on below:
Here’s how the new law applies to organisation based on their jurisdiction as well as the kind of data involved:
The PDPL applies to the processing of personal data and sensitive personal data related to individuals residing in Saudi Arabia. The PDPL also covers the deceased’s personal data, if it would lead to identifying the deceased or one of his/her family members specifically. The PDPL excludes the processing of personal data for domestic purposes from its application scope.
The PDPL applies to public or private organisations that process personal data related to individuals in Saudi Arabia by any means. If a foreign organisation processes personal data related to individuals residing in Saudi Arabia, then the PDPL will also apply.
The PDPL provides several obligations for the controlling authorities (data controllers). Before processing personal data, the data controllers (organisations) are required to ensure the accuracy, completeness, and relevancy of the personal data. The controlling authorities must also fulfill data protection principles (collection limitation, purpose limitation, data security, accountability, retention limitation, etc.).
Following are the critical obligations provided under the PDPL that organisations must oblige to stay compliant:
The PDPL requires that organisations not process personal data without the consent of its owner except for the cases stipulated under the Draft Regulation.
Data subjects may withdraw their consent to the processing of personal data at any time, and consent must not be a prerequisite for the data controller to offer a service or benefit (unless the service or benefit is specifically related to the processing activity for which consent is obtained).
The PDPL provides that consent is not required in the following scenarios:
Organisations subject to PDPL must register on an electronic portal that will form a national record of controlling authorities. Organisations will also have to pay annual registration fees that will be decided in due course.
Organisations that operate outside Saudi Arabia and process the personal data of Saudi residents must appoint a representative in Saudi Arabia that the regulatory authority can resort to regarding compliance with the applicable laws.
Organisations must – in the case of collecting personal data directly from data subjects – use adequate means to inform data subjects of the following elements before starting to collect his data:
The PDPL requires organisations to take the necessary organisational, administrative, and technical measures and means to ensure the preservation of personal data, including when it is transferred, per the provisions and controls specified by the Draft Regulations.
The PDPL requires that organisations notify the regulatory authority no later than 72 hours of first becoming aware of a data breach. Furthermore, the data controller must provide the regulatory authority with a detailed analysis of the breach and what steps are being taken to ensure such an incident is not repeated.
Additionally, if the data breach puts the data subjects' personal data at significant risk, the data controller must inform them promptly. The controller must also communicate the contact details of the relevant DPO the data subjects can contact to know more about what data has been compromised.
The PDPL provides that organisations are required to appoint a person (or several persons) to be responsible for implementing the provisions of the PDPL.
The PDPL mandates organisations to conduct an assessment of the consequences of processing personal data for any product or service provided to the public according to the nature of their processing activities.
Under the PDPL, organisations must keep records of their processing activities and for a period determined by the Draft Regulation. The records should include a minimum of the following data:
The PDPL provides that organisations – when choosing the processing party – must choose an entity that provides the necessary guarantees for enforcing the provisions of the PDPL and must constantly verify such entity's compliance with its instructions in all matters relating to the protection of personal data.
Saudi Arabia's data protection law strictly stipulates that a cross-border data transfer may only take place unless a strict impact assessment has been carried out to evaluate just how secure the external location is. Additionally, written consent from the regulatory authority is also required.
Other exceptions include the following:
Like most other data protection regulations globally, the PDPL ensures that all data subjects are guaranteed certain rights. These rights, known as data subject rights, ensure that all users retain control over their data once it has been collected. Different data protection laws offer various different kinds of data subject rights. The ones guaranteed by the PDPL include the following:
The data controller is required to ensure that all data subjects are appropriately informed about these rights and establish dedicated channels for data subjects to exercise these rights. The data controller must fulfill these requests within 30 days and record all data subject requests received.
The Saudi Data & Artificial Intelligence Authority (SDAIA) will be the primary body responsible for enforcing the PDPL within Saudi borders. More than just levying penalties on organisations found in violation of the PDPL, the SDAIA is also expected to advise organisations in internal data transfers and keep track of data subject rights requests received by organisations, among other responsibilities.
However, the Saudi Data & Artificial Intelligence Authority (SDAIA) will supervise the implementation of the new legislation for only the first two years. A transfer of supervision to the National Data Management Office (NDMO) will be considered in 2024.
The PDPL provides that the penalty for disclosing or publishing sensitive personal data may include imprisonment for up to two years and/or a fine not exceeding SAR 3 million ($800,000); both organisations and individuals can therefore be sanctioned.
For violating the cross-border data transfer requirements, there may be imprisonment for up to one year and/or a fine not exceeding SAR 1 million ($267,000). For violations of other provisions of the PDPL, penalties are limited to a warning notice or a fine not exceeding SAR 5 million ($1.3 million). The court may double the penalty of the fine in case of repetition of offenses.
Organisations will be required to adjust their status per provisions of the PDPL within a period not exceeding one year from the date that it becomes effective.
Global privacy regulations encourage organisations to be responsible custodians of their consumers' data and automate privacy and security operations. To operationalize compliance, organisations need to incorporate robotic automation to keep up with the current digital landscape. Several organisations offer software that helps companies comply with global privacy regulations, but these solutions have been restricted to mainly process-driven tasks or rudimentary data-driven functions.
Securiti combines reliability, intelligence, and simplicity, working on the PrivacyOps framework to allow end-to-end automation for organisations. Securiti can help you stay compliant with the PDPL and other privacy and security regulations all over the world. See how it works. Request a demo today.
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